Weaving Tradition in the Nomadic Life

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Weaving Tradition in the Nomadic Life


Yörükler preferred the weaving as the goods necessary for a simple life should be easy to carry. Weavings were used in carrying, covering, storing and wrapping (Atlıhan, 1999: 35). They organize their lives according to this tent life by setting up tents where they stay.

The phenomenon of carrying goods arising from displacement and the journeys that lasted days led the Yoruks to produce and use easily transportable items. Yörük's home items are beds, quilts, carpets, rugs, bells, straws, felt, prayer, ala and bristle sacks, saddlebags and bags and kitchen utensils. Most of these items are based on weaving. In addition, this production activity requires using the raw material obtained from animal husbandry, which are the main sources of livelihood.

The nomads use the wool of their animals, which they take care of and benefit from meat, milk and skin, to produce functional items to meet their various needs. For these reasons and because of the fact that small, functional and light goods are produced, weaving has become an indispensable part of the nomadic life for these communities that carry their houses from one place to another (Akan, 2008: 23).

The nomads' preservation of their lifestyles and characters for many years clearly show that they have a traditionalist attitude. The area where this traditionalist attitude is the most striking is its weaving. It has been thanks to these traditionalist attitudes that weaving has remained unchanged in the nomadic arts such as music, woodworking and leatherworking (Kademoğlu, 1973: 24).

Yörük weavings also have aesthetic value. Yörükler reflects the diversity and color that they see in their weaving regions. Thus, both functional and artistic products emerged (Akan, 2008: 23).

Raw Material Used in Weavings The nomad life style necessitates the evaluation of wool and bristles increased from animal husbandry in weaving. Yörükler skillfully continued the process of obtaining yarn from shearing wool and hair. In order to prevent loss of time during long walks, they undertook the process of twisting the fibers into yarns while walking.

It is possible to say that the wool and hair fibers used in weavings are obtained from the animals living in the region, weaving activity is based on animal husbandry, and accordingly, goat hair has a wide usage area. Second place is sheep wool. The hair of the goat and the sheep's wool are two raw materials that will lead a life in a closed economy without needing the nomads outside. By weaving the hair or wool in their own tools and looms, they acquire the household goods and the goods of the animals. These simple pursuits led to the widespread use of Yörük's settlements in villages and towns, making professions (knitting yarn from goat hair) and mutaflik (those weaving the ropes on a special loom) (Eröz, 1991: 171).

In weavings, yarns obtained from goat hair and sheep wool are used in warp and weft yarns, and only yarn from sheep wool is used in pattern yarns. In addition to the functions of the fabrics in use, naming them according to the type of fiber used (wool, hair, sack, etc.) emphasizes the importance of the raw material used in the fabrics. Although there is no evidence of camel hair use in the research, it is stated that it has been used in some sources in the past. Processes of the fibers from the wrinkle stage until they are ready for weaving, wrinkle, washing, combing, spring throwing, twisting preparation (the process given to make the fibers come regularly before spinning in the kir), spinning, coaching (the name given to making two layers of spun yarns), twisting process It is ranked as (Akan, 2008: 30)

Yörük women are very successful in coloring yarns. The composition never stands unappealing and disturbing. The colors of the nomadic fabrics are joyful and cheerful (Reinhard, 77: 249). In the research conducted, it has been determined that vegetable dyed fabrics are limited to old samples, and today, vegetable dye applications are very limited. The weavers interviewed stated that they had dyed their yarn once a week to the dyers who came to the village and that they used chemical dyes for this process. However, there are also weavers that use easily obtained dye plants. It is stated that walnuts are generally used in this yarn coloring process where traditional methods are followed (Akan, 2008: 31).

Machine and Tools Used

It has been observed that the looms in which the weavings were obtained were created by the weavers' own means. In the observation made in the villages where the nomads are settled, it is observed that the "loom" loom type, which is the weaving of flat loom techniques, is used. As this machine can be disassembled and assembled very quickly, Yörük has been

2-Tent Weavings
The word "tent" is a word that comes from the "roof" root and means "portable dwelling made of fabric". The tent, which is an indispensable type of housing and importance in the nomadic lifestyle, is one of the most distinctive features of the nomadic communities. The tent emerges as a type of dwelling suitable for the nomadic communities' resources and the way they live. Regardless of its form and type, the fact that the nomadic lifestyle requires permanent migration, it can be set up, dismantled and easily transported in a short time, its raw material is provided and touched, its suitability to climate conditions and its versatile utilization forms are the most important factors that create a tent (Kutlu, 1987). : 329).

Karaçadır was preferred among other tent types due to its practicality in its installation, lifting and transportation. Wooden material is small in Karaçadır elements and a camel is sufficient for its transportation (Atlıhan, 1992: 49). The bristle cover, which takes the name "sackcloth" of the tent, is naturally colored. The white ones of these hair weaves, mostly brown, were previously woven to the chieftains of the tribe and later to tents of newlyweds (Gürdal, 1976: 66). Tent cover woven from goat hair, which is the main part of the tent, and the sticks used in style, stick and tying are mainly tent fabrics. Felts made to others by laying the wool on the tent floor are laid. The bristle fabrics drawn on the poles of the tent are woven with a width of about 2-3 m and a length of 50 cm. At the end of each weaving, eaves are made to the end. Tent cover is obtained by sewing 5 wings side by side in the smallest tent. If the tent is large, 7 wings are added. The wings should be woven in 10 pieces at a width of 60-70 cm. "Style" s are less frequently woven sack type fabrics compared to tent covers (Atlıhan, 1992: 50). They are used only as tents in the tent wall. It protects the tent against rain and dust. When looking outside from inside the tent, outside shapes can be seen. "Urethra"; It has a 15-20 cm width, two pieces according to the length of the tent, and looks like a ribbon woven from stylet string. It is added to the long edges of the tent cover, it acts as a fringe that drains the water flowing down from the tent roof in the rain. The "girths", on the other hand, are ribbons woven from a 20 cm wide stylet string. They are sewn across the tent cover to the top of the tent with the bristle thread from the side edges (Atlıhan, 1992: 51). The bristle weaves used for the tent are an important fiber product since they have other features and are resistant to adverse weather conditions (Eliçin et al., 2000: 13). It was determined that the bristle tent was obtained industrially by making yarn from the bristle and touching it in motorized looms in 2000's.

3-Weavings Used in Transport
Immigration, which is an indispensable element of the nomadic way of living, has made it necessary to produce woven items necessary for the healthy transportation of goods. These include grains, clothing and migration sacks, saddlebags and bags, sackcloths, girths and other textiles on camel gear.

Weaving, which is woven among the people with the techniques of bell and bell and serves various purposes, is called "sackcloth". It is natural that these weavings, which are expressed as sackcloth in the nomads, are preferred due to the very convenient carrying function in the nomadic nomadic life style (Kayıpmaz et al., 1993: 36). Right next to the sacks in the tent, there is a "pile" or "load" consisting of the Yörük's bed and quilt. “Cargo bag” covers these bags and the cargo and protects the items underneath them from various effects. It is loaded on all camels during migration. Here too, the sackcloth is covered over the load. Apart from this, it was also observed that the nomads cuddled while sleeping (Ersu, 1976: 126). In the nomads, sackcloth is the name of two different types of documents. The first of these is the black, usually non-embroidery weaving that makes up the tent. Tent sacks take names such as "tent", "side style", "front style" depending on their usage in the tent. The loom they touch is separate from that of other sackcloths. Weavings, called "çullalık" or "çullulık", are woven in loom-type looms. The other type of sackcloth is called "ihram" or "load sack" by the Yörük (Ersu, 1976: 126).

It is a wide bag woven from wool, cotton and linen yarn. In Anatolia, there are sacks woven from wool like rugs in villages. Yörük sacks, which are an Anatolian weave, are also the ornaments of the house (Önder, 1995: 56). Yoruks weave sacks to keep their belongings and food with them because of the life they live. These sacks are lined up around the tent. Sacks are woven with plain weaving techniques, bell, bell and sumac techniques. It is designed with belts to facilitate lowering and lifting the edges. Column weaving or bump techniques are used in the preparation of these belts. Among the people, the sack is known by names such as “butler” and “twill”. Wheat in them, rye

It is a double-eyed fabric and is generally used for carrying goods in rural areas. It is generally defined as a two-eyed bag used by throwing on an animal in the villages or hanging from both sides of the shoulder (Eliçin et al., 2000: 37).

The saddles are among the most popular weavings. In it, food or goods are carried and thrown on passenger animals (Deniz, 2000: 85).

The saddlebag, known as the English "saddelbag", has two bags. These two bags are connected to each other by a piece of weaving. The bags in the saddlebag are called “saddlebag eye” and the connection part is called “saddlebag net” (Atlıhan, 1999: 37).

The back of the saddlebag is plain weave, and there are parts woven with various motifs on the front as well as the types of plain weaves on both sides (Eliçin et al., 2000: 37). The sculptures are grouped among themselves as crops and shoulder sculptures and bag of bags. Ekin and shoulder saddles are double and their flat bags are single eyed (Gercek, 1982: 40).

These samples are considered valuable or worthless according to the materials and techniques they touch. The saddles taken to the field or thrown by the shepherds on the passenger animals are woven from goat hair or cotton. It is usually decorated with narrow bands called "rods" or no decoration is made. Those who weave with the buttonhole rug technique are not durable because they will be put in the article. They mostly touch the bell technique (Deniz, 2000: 85).

The function of the saddlebag is not just the fabric that is put inside and it is not the woven fabric. Saddlebag is also a means of payment like money (Atlıhan, 1999: 38). It is an exchange element that people use to pay their debts to each other in villages or an important item in the tradition of gift giving at weddings.

Girth weaves:
Weaving is a type of weaving that is created by touching with the help of tablets created with various materials. Tableted girth weaving is an ancient handicraft and only tablets form the loom.

Girth weaves are used for attaching loads to animals, attaching the child to the cradle or to the back, to take the cradle to the back, in the handle part of the woven items carried on the back, in various load carrying works. It varies according to the usage patterns and takes names such as “baglama”, “stop rope”.

This weaving can be produced with tablets, and braiding is produced for the same purpose in many techniques with three-legged looms. The raw material of the girth weaving is generally the hair fibers obtained in Yörük in large quantities and finding usage. They can be patterned as well as longitudinal striped.

Yörükler, located in the villages of Olukbaşı, Kızılca and Dutağaç in the Bozdoğan district of Aydın, reports that sacks, saddlebags, bags and girth weaves are produced as well as sack and style weaves for use in tents. It also states that it was made to pregnant women to groom, and to prevent camels to stand up.

Camel Apron: What some nomads call "camel scarf" is the loom weaving. It is colorful and embroidered. Its dimensions are approximately 16-20 x 250-300 cm. It is usually thrown around the neck of the camel (Seyirci, 1987: 335).

CONCLUSION The richness of kirkitli weavings in the nomads is very closely related to the fact that they lived as nomads. Rugs of the nomads, which live today, have shortened and widened. Because their functions have changed (Atlıhan, 1993: 112)

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